Monday, May 25, 2020
The original general model of memory was proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin in 1968. The Attkinson-Shiffrin theory of human memory states that human memory can be classified into three components: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory (Atkinson, Shiffrin, 1968). Sensory memory is where sensory information is brought into memory and maintained by the senses. For instance, when a person perceives an environmental stimulus for a short time before it fades, the object is still preserved in the memory for a short amount of time. Although our minds store significant amounts of information through our senses, we still canÃ¢â¬â¢t process the majority of it accurately because of limitations of the memory. Therefore, information which canÃ¢â¬â¢t be instantly attended to is stored in our sensory memory for a short time (Atkinson, Shiffrin, 1968). There are two aspects of sensory memory: iconic and echoic memory. Iconic memory pertains to the memory of sight, whereas echoic memory relates to the memory of sound. Despite the fact that most of the information in sensory memory begins to diminish, some of the information is attended to. The information that is attended is transported over to to the short-term store, also known as Ã¢â¬Å"short term memoryÃ¢â¬ . The purpose of short term memory is Ã¢â¬Å"to remember an insubstantial amount of information for a short period of timeÃ¢â¬ (Atkinson, Shiffrin, 1968). The information stored in short term memory has a longer duration thanShow MoreRelatedEvaluate two models of one cognitive process1042 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestwo models of one cognitive process This essay will be discussing one particular cognitive process: the memory by evaluating two models, which are the Multi store model introduced by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968 and the Working memory model by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974. The first model is the multi store model. It was first proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968 and is a typical example of the information-processing approach. According to this model, memory consistsRead MoreEssay about Mulit-Store Model of Memory vs. Working Memory Model1101 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescontrast the multi-store model of memory with the working memory model. This essay will firstly briefly describe the theories and important facts about the original multi-store model of memory (MSM) and the working memory model (WMM). This essay will then evaluate the key studies within these two models and explain the strengths and weaknesses of the main theories. The final part of this essay will be to examine the similarities and differences between the two models. The first issue that needsRead MoreThe Working Memory Model Proposed by Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch1630 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages That our memory isnÃ¢â¬â¢t veridical is not a novel idea. This means that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t perfectly remember everything that we have seen or experienced in the past. Broadly speaking, there are two fundamental memory errors that occur in everyday life. One is forgetting events that have occurred, and the other is remembering something that did not transpire (or misremembering them in the way that they occurred). The first error, forgetting, is very common, and needs no explanation. We can all think of instancesRead MoreThe Human Life Expectancy1289 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesperformance of memory demonstrates extensive variety and differences, with a generous increase in execution and performance over childhood and youth, a sneak peak in young adulthood, and fast decrease with propelling grown-up age. Memory execution improves and increases amid youth and pre-adulthood, and declines as the person hits maturity or in old age. Among more youthful grown-ups, better capacity to bind thing s to the setting in which they were experienced is connected with higher working memory executionRead MoreFreud s Interest Of Unconscious Ideas971 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshypnotic trance, she started to talk about her symptoms, and he encouraged her to discuss the original incident that caused her problems. Breuer told Freud about this experience and others, and in 1893 they published the first psychoanalytic essay. Their essay, Ã¢â¬Å"A Preliminary Communication,Ã¢â¬ stated that Ã¢â¬Å"Hysterics suffer mainly from reminiscences.Ã¢â¬ They argued that hysteria was caused by repressed memories and the feelings that went along with them. Freud and Breuer agreed that symptoms could be curedRead MoreSata Commands1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSome Stata Commands Last modified: January 2, 2006 9:51AM General Plotting Commands 1. Plot a histogram of a variable: histogramÃ vname 2. Plot a histogram of a variable using frequencies: histogramÃ vname, freqÃ histogramÃ vname, bin(xx) normÃ whereÃ xxÃ is the number of bins. 3. Plot a boxplot of a variable: graph boxÃ vname 4. Plot side-by-side box plots for one variable (vone) by categories of another variableÃ vtwo. (vtwoÃ should be categorical)):Ã graph boxÃ vone, over(vtwo) Read MoreOrigami As An Inclusive Term For All Folding Practices1155 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmost famous origami model is the Japanese paper crane. The majority of these designs begin with a square sheet of paper which the sides may potentially be of different colours, prints, or patterns. Traditional Japanese Origami was rather relaxed compared to Origami practised in the Edo period. Today it is frowned upon to sometimes cut paper or to use non-square shapes to start with, back then it was absolutely fine. What is the history of it? The history of paper folding, in general, is really murkyRead MoreForensic Examiner An Empirically Constructed Method Of Assessing Impairment1411 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescriminal culpability with the ALI standard, and incorporates experimental decision models for guilty-but-mentally-ill, and MÃ¢â¬â¢Naghten standards (Rogers, 1998). On the basis of discriminant function analysis, he concludes that the R-CRAS variables were able to form differentiating patterns (between individuals showing impairment and those not showing impairment) for each of the five components of the decision model. Results indicated average hit rates of 94.3% (ranging from 87.8% for Major MentalRead MoreInfluencing The Performance Of Simultaneous Interpreters776 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageschapter 4 The position of interpreting studies (PÃ ¶chhacker, 2013,60-72). In this chapter, with his emphasizing on simultaneous interpreting, PÃ ¶chhacke(2013) introduced the history of interpreting studies, the definition in interpreting studies, the models and theory of interpreting studying, etc. The book The origins of simultaneous interpretation: The Nuremberg Trial(Gaiba, F,1998) gave a clear introduction of the nature and history of simultaneous interpretation form the Nuremberg Trial. BesidesRead MoreVarious Stages of Product Life Cycle798 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¯ » ¿The classic model of a product life cycle has four basic stages: Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline. These cylces may be mitigated by product extensions, etc. in the case of a childs bed, utilizing new themes could continually place part of the line extension back into the growth market to maturity instead of allowing the whole line to decline. The various stages of the cycle are often explained as: Introduction this is a development stage, market growth is light, but may be dependent
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Evidenced Based Practice (EBP) is essential to enable all nurses to provide the most current up to date practises for their patients. This process involves research, systematic review of current practises, critical thinking skills, evaluation and application to the clinical setting. In addition to this, the nurse must take into account the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ preferences. For nurses to have professional autonomy they must be able to justify their actions and demonstrate an understanding of why they perform the tasks they do. This defines them as unique professionals judged by their knowledge and not simply by their hands on skills. As stated by McSherry, Simmons Pearce (2002); Ã¢â¬Å"Nurses are responsible for the care they provide for their patient.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(Polit Beck, 2010). As nursing is person-centred and relies on a multidisciplinary team approach it has to take into account the care setting, patient predilections, clinical judgement and best available evidence. (Holland Rees, 2010). The key steps involved in evidence based practice come from a thirst for knowledge that once ignited makes the next step to asking a well worded clinical question easier. A well formulated question improves patient outcomes and supports the implementation of change. One such method looks at foreground and background questions. A background question is usually a basic knowledge question and is usually answered by a textbook. Foreground questions are usually specific and once answered can help in clinical changes. An acronym useful for formulating a well worded question is PICOT. ( Stillwell, Fineout-Overholt, Melnyk, Williamson, 2010). Ã¢â¬Å"PICOT is an acronym for the elements of the clinical question: patient population (P), intervention or issue of interest (I), comparison intervention or issue of interest (C), outcome(s) of interest (O), time it takes for the intervention to achieve the outcome(s) (T).Ã¢â¬ (Stillwell et al., 2010, p. 59). When a question has been identified the best study design can be chosen. For a prognosis question, a good quality cohort study would be used. For a non-compliance question, a qualitative study would be appropriate and for the effectiveness of treatment a systematicShow MoreRelatedThe Benefits of Evidence Based Practice in Nursing Essay2941 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesEvidence based practice (EBP) is a systematic approach that integrates the best currently available evidence, along with clinical expertise and each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s preference to make clinical decision, in order to deliver the most optimal care to patients (Baigis Hughes, 2001). EBP in nursing refers to the adaptation of the latest best nursing research findings with nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ clinical experience and the value and preference of patients, families and communities to make the patient care better (TheRead MoreWhat Are Nursing Research?1359 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat is nursing research and why is it important to nursin g? Research is essential in all aspects of life. Research guides decisions on what cars will be bought, what houses will be purchased, or where children will attend school. So, why would research not be an important part of deciding what is best in regards to healthcare? Research is conducted to gather data about a particular subject. Data that is collected through research should strive to be obtained from resources that are valid, credibleRead MoreEvidence Based Practice : Nursing Implications1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Evidence Based Practice: Nursing Implications Misty DelCiampo Submitted to Sarah P. Combs PhD, MPH, RN in partial fulfillment of NR460 Evidence Based Practice in Nursing Regis University August 3rd, 2015 Evidence Based Practice Nursing Implications As the health care environment is becoming more complex, and technology is developing rapidly, the expectations of nurses has increased more than ever before. Times are rapidly changing and to keep up with these changes, nurses areRead MoreMagnet And Its Effects On Nursing Practice1610 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMagnet and its effects on Nursing Practice According to the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), there are 426 hospitals that have achieved Magnet status (ANCC, 2016). Hospitals that are designated Magnet facilities have a professional practice model that is based on a connection between their mission, values and nursing practice (Berger, Conway, Beaton, 2012). The professional practice model must also encompass the Magnet ProgramÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation for nursing excellence. The Magnet CertificationRead MoreReview of a Nursing Journal on an EBP Process: Together with his colleagues at the University of1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesReview of a Nursing Journal on an EBP Process: Together with his colleagues at the University of Washington, Jeffrey R. Harris developed and published an article regarding the most appropriate means for disseminating evidence-based practices. The framework was geared towards spreading evidence-based practices that focus on health promotion. The authors argued that the basis for widespread adoption of evidence-based health promotion practices is mainly dependent on developing and evaluating effectiveRead MoreRelationship Between Nursing Profession With Scholarship, Praxis, And Evidence Based Practice971 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbetween nursing profession with scholarship, praxis, and evidence-based practice to improve quality of care for individuals and their respective societies. The Oxford English dictionary defined scholarship as the attainments of a scholar, learning, and erudition in a person (Scholarship, 2016). Scholarship is a noun of academic study or achievement, learning at a higher level. Scholarship in nursing has become an essential part of our professional evolution. Professional nursing practice at allRead MoreEssay The Benefits of BSN over ADN1005 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe national shortage of Registered Nurses (RNs) has helped generate formidable interest in the nursing profession among people entering the workforce and those pursuing a career change. According to a report issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Service in 2002, the national population is continuing to grow and age and medical services continue to advance, so the need for nurses will continue to increase. They report from 2000 to 2020 the predicted shortage of nurses is expected toRead MoreThe Need For Classification Of Nursing Data1559 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Need for Classification of Nursing Data in EHRs In the healthcare industry, nursing is underrepresented in the development of healthcare policies. Current nursing practice depends on the use of standardized nursing terminology and documentation to accurately communicate and identify nursing diagnoses, nursing care provided, and interventions that were performed within healthcare disciplines process (Mennella Caple, 2016). The essential solution to making nursing more visible is having necessaryRead MoreIntegrating Technology Based Teaching Strategies816 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesNursing education has undergone a wide range of changes in the past decade. The foundation for these changes are some of the major events such as; radical transformation Ã¢â¬â a report released by Carnegie Foundation, the Affordable Care Act, a report released by the Institute of Medicine regarding the innovation in nurse education, and an initiative called as the Future of Nursing: Campaign for Action (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation [RWJF], 2012). Some of the major changes in nursing education are;Read MoreImportance Of Evidence Based Practice And Nursing Research1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Significance of Evidence Based Practice and Nursing Research Rina Desai Widener University Ã¢â¬Æ' The significance of nursing research and evidence-based practice has gained a huge momentum in nursing. Research findings, knowledge from basic science, clinical knowledge, and expert opinion are all considered Ã¢â¬ËevidenceÃ¢â¬â¢. Thus, the practices based on research findings are more likely to result in the desired patient outcomes across numerous clinical settings. In addition, the pressure of healthcare
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
IBMs Multicultural Multinational Teams South University Online Todays work environment is more complex than it has ever been. With the number of global companies increasing and the competition that has resulted from this business practice, there has been tremendous demand for organizations to improve their workforce practices. The pressures of organizations to be globally competitive has led to drastic changes in the way that business work practices are utilized. Organizations had to develop strategies that increased efficiency, productivity, and also profitability. The resulting changes has shifted the work environment from an individualistic nature to more of a team oriented structure.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Once IBM became so wide and diverse the need for an informal, impermanent, and team oriented environment became necessary. Describe the stages of group development these teams should expect to experience. At each stage, make recommendations that will help move the team into the next stage. There are five stages of group development that teams will experience. These stages are all needed and should be anticipated in order for the team to develop, to deal with challenges, to undertake problems, to uncover solutions, to strategize the effort, and to provide the desired outcome. The initial stage involved in the team building process is the forming stage. This is when the forming of the team occurs and the team members are uncertain about what the process will be. This stage is to identify group behaviors, principles and standards and methods to manage behavioral problems. In this stage team members get to know one another and develop opinions about one anothers personalities. The team members are finding out the extent of the mission and how to tackle the opportunities and challenges they will encounter, along with establishing and agreeing to goals. After the group begins to get fairly comfortable with one anothers behavioral characteristics and the details of the p roject are sorted out, the team will begin the advancement to the next stage of the group development. The second stage involved in the team buildingShow MoreRelatedCase Analysis of Lenovo MA IBM PC department3533 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagessuccessful overseas MAs suffering from a low profit margin in the PC business and intense competitions from tablet PCs and smart phones, the company is initiating to diversify its businesses. The most famous MA case is the merger and acquisition of IBMs PC unit. In fact, in early 2000, IBM had already represented its willingness to sell their PC unit to Lenovo. Why would IBM sell its renowned PC unit? According to the financial report submitted by the IBM in the year 2004, the PC division lost 397millionRead MoreCase Study on Ibm7721 Words Ã |Ã 31 PagesSTraTEGIc Hr ManaGEMEnT case studyÃ¢â¬âPaRt a IBMÃ¢â¬â¢s Global Talent Management Strategy: The Vision of the Globally Integrated Enterprise By John W. Boudreau, Ph.D. Project team Author: SHRM project contributor: External contributors: John W. Boudreau, Ph.D. Nancy A. Woolever, SPHR Randy MacDonald Richard Calo Michelle Rzepnicki Katya Scanlan Jihee Lombardi Copy editing: Design: Ã © 2010 Society for Human Resource Management. John W. Boudreau, Ph.D. Development of this case was made possible by a grantRead MoreDiversity in Multi-Cultural Teams Creates Potential Advantages2825 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesMMM028 COMPARATIVE AND INTER-CULTURAL MANAGEMENT Diversity in multi-cultural teams creates potential advantages. Discuss.Ã In the recent years, the movement of the modern business are very much according to the globalisation of the worlds economy, which resulted in the increasing amount of international businesses, global economic competition, and the difference/divergence within the organisations. Globalisation creates international business environment that requires businessesRead MoreHofstede s Cultural Dimensions With Globe Study1998 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdone so far. The GLOBE Project had 170 investigators from different countries divided into 62 different cultures with a 14-member group of co-ordinators and research associates who were the major contributors towards this study. This international team collected the data from 17,300 different middle managers in plenty of organizations i.e. 951 different organisations (House et al, 2004). The GLOBE researchers used the acquired data to put nations into many cultural clusters that are grouped basedRead MoreLenovo and Ibm23938 Words Ã |Ã 96 Pagesintegration for merger and acquisition from a Western perspective, few have discussed cultural integration in an Asian context. This study provides a case study of cultural integration strategies Lenovo has undertaken to manage employees from both teams after the MA. It adopts a semi-structure face-to-face interview research method, which 5 participants were selected from the culture integration committee for interview. During the interview, each participant answered the questions from their perspectiveRead MoreThe Impact Of Diversified Workforce And How Management Handles Their Employees From Different Cultural Backgrounds3622 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesAuthors have not focused on the extent of diversity that should be introduced in the office which will enhance employee output. The paper therefore thrives to find answers to these questions. 1. Literature Review According to Harmon (2015), a multinational firm is an amalgamation of different cultures and work ethics. A diverse culture in the organization means that there are advantages and disadvantages both associated with managing the employees from different backgrounds. It is evident from theRead MoreOrganizational Behavior5621 Words Ã |Ã 23 Pagesbalance sheets rather than human resources. Answer a Page 2 2. _____ is a structured social system consisting of groups and individuals working together to meet some agreed-upon objective. a. An open system b. An organization c. A work team d. Scientific management Answer b Page 3 3. Organizational behavior: a. is a social science that examines peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior in society, like physics or sociology. b. studies how organizations compete and applies that knowledge to improveRead MoreStrategic Human Resource Management View.Pdf Uploaded Successfully133347 Words Ã |Ã 534 Pagesand interpersonal skills training. Training took up 25 percent of total working time during the plantÃ¢â¬â¢s first year of operation. The plantÃ¢â¬â¢s empowered workers take on duties previously performed by managers and use their broad range of skills in a team-based approach. An intensive emphasis on skills is maintained as workers must master three skill modules within two years in order to retain their jobs. In contrast to the narrow job definitions in many U.S. plants, the Corning plant has only fourRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pagesand Moods 97 Personality and Values 131 Perception and Individual Decision Making 165 Motivation Concepts 201 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 23 9 3 The Group 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Foundations of Group Behavior 271 Understanding Work Teams 307 Communication 335 Leadership 367 Power and Politics 411 Conflict and Negotiation 445 Foundations of Organization Structure 479 v vi BRIEF CONTENTS 4 The Organization System 16 Organizational Culture 511 17 Human Resource PoliciesRead MoreManagement Course: MbaÃ¢Ëâ10 General Management215330 Words Ã |Ã 862 Pagesinnovations such as direct-to-customer production sales and supply chain leadership. These innovations allowed Dell to build its computer business volume and success by blindsiding the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s existing marketing, production, and retailing practices. IBMÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to emphasizing services and partnering with other technology companiesÃ¢â¬âand making it workÃ¢â¬âhas been the key to its strength. Our own total quality management (which identified the costs of quality failure and converted them into opportunity
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Low Status and Power Bangladesh is one of the worlds most densely populated countries with 150 million people, 49 percent of whom live below the national poverty line. In addition, child malnutrition rates of 48 percent are the second highest in the world, a condition that is tied to the low social status of women in Bangladeshi society (THP). Even though women constitute almost half of the population in Bangladesh, their status has been ranked the lowest in the world based on twenty indicators related to education, health, marriage, children, employment, and social equality (NCBP). Bangladesh is a very patriarchal society and gender inequality is evidenced in almost every aspect of life. Some studies have shown that the majority of women from rural areas are not aware of gender inequality because traditional beliefs keep them in the shadow of their fathers, husbands, and sons (Hadi). Women are dependent on men all their lives because that is what they know. Their traditions and lack of education keep them pocketed away from society especially in rural areas, where after marriage they are not allowed to leave the home unless accompanied by a male relative. Bangladesh is one of the very few countries in the world in which males outnumber females; this provides strong evidence that there is a problem of missing women. Census data from 2001 shows that more than 2. 7 million Bangladeshi women were missing (SIGI). There are no reliable statistics to quote, so estimates on the number of trafficked women and children are difficult to make. The crime is largely hidden despite its pervasiveness. Nevertheless, a total of 335 women and children were reportedly trafficked from Bangladesh in 2002 (BNWLA). In all fairness, it seems that stating Ã¢â¬Å"more than 2. 7 million Bangladeshi women were missingÃ¢â¬ from the 2001 census may pose more questions than answers especially considering many rural families do not legally record births, deaths and marriages because they havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been educated to do so. Son preference is also prevalent in this society leading to female sex-selective abortions, neglect of girls (compared to boys) in early childhood and abandonment (SIGI). A report released by the U. N. Population Fund in 2000 asserted that 47 percent of adult women report physical abuse by their male partner. Much of the reported violence against women is related to disputes over dowries. Assailants who fling acid in their faces disfigure a number of women each year. Many of these attacks are revenge motivated by rejected suitors. Few perpetrators of these acid attacks are prosecuted due to poor investigation and lack of eyewitnesses (OWP). Reproductive Freedom In Bangladesh, the use of the term Ã¢â¬Å"Reproductive RightsÃ¢â¬ is very recent. The common understanding of reproductive rights is that women should be able to decide and control their own bodies and reproductive behavior. However, many women living in rural and poor urban settings of Bangladesh are victims of physical, sexual, psychological, and human rights violations (Hossain and Akhter). Pregnant women have many potential causes for serious illness and complications during their pregnancy. Early marriage, lack of proper nutrition, and multiple pregnancies are just the beginning. Abortion is not legal, and many women attempt to induce abortion or get assistance from untrained people in less than sanitary conditions. These factors often lead to sterility and sometimes death. The government decides which contraceptives will be made available to women and often due to lack of education; rural women are unaware of what is accessible to them. Additionally, Ã¢â¬Å"women have to take permission from their husbands to use contraceptives (Hossain and Akhter)Ã¢â¬ . This means that women, especially the extremely poor, do not have a choice concerning the timing of pregnancies. A highly religious and patriarchal culture keeps women on the role of passivity regarding their own sexual health and those who resist are subject to spousal battering, dowry-related torture, marital rape, arbitrary family planning, and sexually transmitted diseases (Henningfeld 98). Sexuality / Lesbianism There is not much written in news articles or reports about lesbians in Bangladesh. In fact, any references to lesbianism are almost footnotes in ublications regarding homosexual men or LGBT. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"An Analysis of Homosexuality in BangladeshÃ¢â¬ by Ashok Deb on the LGBT Bangladesh website, the writer describes how invisible the gay and lesbian communities of Bangladesh are and the prejudices they face. Bangladesh has the second largest Muslim population in the world and homosexuality is forbidden in their culture. Ã¢â¬Å"Although not declared officially like [in] Iran,Ã¢â¬ ¦. homosexuality does not simply exist. The combination of homophobia and heterosexism in Bangladesh keeps the majority of gays and lesbians in Ã¢â¬Å"the closet. Lesbians in Bangladesh are dealt a double blow in regard to their rights; being women in a largely hetero-patriarchy society where women do not have the same liberties as men and being the sexual minority whose sexuality is controlled by society, religion and the legal system. Since the Bangladesh culture essentially prohibits a homosexual lifestyle, lesbians are forced to hide their sexual orientation to protect themselves and their families from physical and verbal attacks and/or community rejection. Thus to avoid social abrogation and rejection, a lesbian opts to marry a male partnerÃ¢â¬ ¦ (Deb)Ã¢â¬ . Such Ã¢â¬Å"invisibilityÃ¢â¬ in culture and denial of sexual orientation can lead to serious psychological issues resulting in depression and sometimes, even suicide. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Work In general, women are undervalued both in the formal and informal labor sectors; formal being the workplace where one receives a taxed paycheck and informal work situations such as contract basis, Ã¢â¬Ëunder the tableÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëoff the booksÃ¢â¬â¢ (Burn 92). Bangladesh is one of the worst countries concerning gender pay gap, occupational sex segregation, and gender stereotypes in the workplace. The World BankÃ¢â¬â¢s 2012 labor report states that Bangladeshi women make 12 cents for every dollar a man earns! One of the contributing factors to the wage gap is called the human capital approach. This means that women are credited with less education, experience, and life skills to offer an employer versus that of a man, so they can be paid less (Burn 104). However, the young women of Bangladesh are starting to make changes in their lives and in society. Allowing women to work outside the home is one of the first steps to economic empowerment of women. There are still many cultures, Bangladesh included, where women are dependent on men for everything, but that is slowly changing. Women without access to their own money are more likely to be forced to marry young, have many children, and have little to no education. Young women who are in the workforce have better mobility, access to better education and marry later in life. When these women do get married, they have control of their own reproductivity and are more likely than men to put their money back into their family in the form of better food, homes, health care, and education for their daughters as well as their sons. Additionally, their daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s will have an even better education and that will give them the skills to make their own decisions about contraceptives, where to work, when to get married and how to use their earnings (Negash). Investing in the women of today can lead to less poverty tomorrow. One challenge for women in the workplace is sexual harassment. The general idea is as follows: typically, men committing unwelcome/ unwanted sexual advances toward women in the workplace. The sex-role spillover theory posed by Gutek amp; Morash in 1982, suggests that how men and women perceive their roles in life (men seeing women in sexual terms and women trained to see this as flattery and not complain) Ã¢â¬Ëspills-overÃ¢â¬â¢ into the workplace. This leads to a few different kinds of sexual harassment; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention and sexual coercion. Gender harassment is derogatory and insulting behavior toward women. Suggestive comments and physical contact comprise some aspects of unwanted sexual attention and the worst is sexual coercion; sex being required to get or keep a job (Burn 113). However, there is very little written about sexual harassment toward Bangladeshi women in the work force. Unfortunately, several factors contribute to this problem. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s unwillingness to report harassment is the biggest one. Reasons that harassment is not reported may be any or all of the following: women are trained from childhood that any talk of the sexual nature is taboo, fear that if they do report the harassment they will lose their job, and worse, fear that they report it and their superiors will do nothing (Siddiqi). The work environment in Bangladesh will not improve until the traditional gender role perspectives are changed by both men and women. Women in Development Households in rural areas of Bangladesh face several major environmental problems. Frequently, access to clean water and poor sanitary disposal contribute to villagers contracting gastrointestinal and other water-borne diseases. In addition, there continues to be loss of natural forest areas due to commercial tree felling for fuel and encroachments on agricultural settlements. Clearly, there is a direct correlation between environmental issues and poverty; the poor are forced to address short-term needs, even if their actions contribute to the long-term depletion of natural resources (Rhaman and Roy). The Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development (BARD) has incorporated an Environmental Education program in one of its rural development projects, the Comprehensive Village Development Program (CVDP). Since its inception, CVDP has been working to establish a strong institutional framework at the village level with the active participation of the members of the communities (M.H. Chowdhury). There are no short cuts in reducing poverty and increasing economic development in Bangladesh. The CVDP encourages local leadership and community participation by addressing rural problems related to development. The program works to implement strategies to empower the women and the poor in these communities. Women and Religion The major (state) religion in Bangladesh is Islam with Hindu in second position. Early Islam history shows that women were important leaders of the religion but now women are limited in their public participation; women can be leaders only in all female groups. It is believed that the teachings of Islam are opposed to using masculine god language and promote all followers as equal and yet Allah is referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"heÃ¢â¬ and women do not have much of a public role in the religion (Burn 184). Fundamentalist Islam religious practices are very gender segregated; one reason women primarily participate in religious rituals within the home is because menstruation is considered unclean and they cannot enter a mosque or touch the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an until their period is complete and have taken the ritual cleansing bath (Burn184). Men claim that one of the reasons mosques are segregated is that women are a physical distraction, so men and women cannot pray together (Jehanzeb). Contrary to many WesternerÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs, many Muslim women view traditional Islamic dress as a way to show their devotion to Allah, rather than a form of oppression. The use of the hijab (or veil) to cover the hair and the abaya (a long dress or coat and a headscarf) are expressions of women wanting to please Allah and follow Islamic teachings (Burn 185). Women in Politics Although two women Prime Ministers have headed the Bangladeshi government alternately for the past 20 years, this does not reflect the ratios of gender participation in the Parliament or decision-making at policy level. While there have been many men in the ceremonial presidential position, there have been only the two women, Sheikh Hasina or Khaleda Zia, alternating in the most powerful position of the country. However, even though they held high positions within the government, neither questioned the male dominance of politics in Bangladesh or tried to change gendered political structures in order to allow more female participation. Islam plays an important role in both society and politics in Bangladesh. In 1988, an amendment to the constitution made Islam the state religion. To insure their participation and visibility in politics, many female Members of Parliment observe proper female Islamic dress code by covering their heads in public and participating in public religious rituals to show that they were practicing Muslims. It has always been very important to the people of Bangladesh that their statespeople be practicing Muslims (N. Chowdhury, Women and Politics Worldwide). Despite the two top leaders of Bangladesh being female, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s representation in parliament is small. The quota of reserved seats for women in the Bangladeshi Parliament is 45. These 45 of 300 total seats do not adequately represent the over fifty percent female votership in Bangladesh (N. Chowdhury). Thus, ensuring that women do not have an equal voice in BangladeshÃ¢â¬â¢s politics. Women who are Members of the Parliament from those reserved seats are considered Ã¢â¬Å"ornamentalÃ¢â¬ partially due to lack of participation but mostly because of the patriarchal views of women in the public sphere. Also, women do not run for unreserved seats on parliament for many reasons. Some state they do not have the funding (because their money is controlled by their husbands), do not want to be linked to criminal activities, and some fear for their lives should they win. The political arena in Bangladesh is filled with corruption and many male politicians buy their way into Parliament or use assassins to eliminate competition (F. D. Chowdhury). Unfortunately, neither Sheikh Hasina or Khaleda Zia used the power of her position to further womenÃ¢â¬â¢s political growth or enhance their political competency (N. Chowdhury). Gender Equality Movements The Bangladeshi Constitution affirms gender equality but womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights are often disregarded. Women and girls are disadvantaged in their access to education, health care, and financial assets (SIGI). Islamic Sharia law regards women as Ã¢â¬Å"custodiansÃ¢â¬ but not legal guardians of their children. In the event of divorce under Muslim law, women can only retain custody of sons until age seven and daughters until puberty (SIGI). The husband has the right of unilateral divorce, for no cause at all. The wife has no such right and when her husband exercises his right; she has no redress. BangladeshÃ¢â¬â¢s largest womenÃ¢â¬â¢s organization, Mahila Parishad, works to raise womenÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness and provide equality in the laws that govern the country. Twenty years ago, they lobbied parliament to pass an Anti-dowry law due to the extreme violence against married women over dowries (Burn 252). Although this law is in effect, many families in rural areas still observe the dowry as part of the marriage arrangement. Unfortunately, due to extreme poverty and underdevelopment, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s equality issues are not seen as important issues (N. Chowdhury, Women and Politics Worldwide). Women in the Garment Industry Over 80 percent of BangladeshÃ¢â¬â¢s garment industry workers are women, which is a large increase over previous studies (ILO). Traditionally, garment industry workers have always been men and when women were first hired, the men were not sure they could do the job. Only after watching women in action did that thought change. Breaking some of the typical gender stereotypes, there are now over 200 garment factories in Bangladesh that not only hire women to sew and iron garments but some allow women to move into Ã¢â¬ËcutterÃ¢â¬â¢ positions, normally a position only held by men (ILO). Still, occupational sex de-segregation has a long way to go. Some of these companies, like Babylon Garments Factory, are making great strides to create family-friendly facilities; a nursery for workerÃ¢â¬â¢s children and free medical treatment/ health care on the premises (ILO). However, there is still a lot of progress to be made before women can break through the glass ceiling in the Bagladeshi workforce. Women and Proper Etiquette There are many subtle nuances of proper etiquette concerning Bangladeshi women such as how to greet them, dining arrangements, and proper attire. Greetings usually only take place between members of the same sex and women will really only be met within a business atmosphere; foreign men should nod to a Bangladeshi women unless she extends her hand and address her as Ã¢â¬Å"BegumÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"MadamÃ¢â¬ ). Public displays of affection, even between husbands and wives, are considered immoral; particularly in respect to unmarried females (Shrestha). Women should not be photographed unless it is certain there will be no objections. Dining will typically be same sex inside and outside of the home. Proper attire for Bangladeshi women includes a Saree (a type of dress), a Hijab (or veil) worn on the head so that no hair is showing with the common hairstyle, and hair worn in a Beni (twisted bun). Use of Western clothing is rare and exposure of cleavage, thighs and arms is discouraged (Shrestha). In Closing Women represent half the worlds population, and gender inequality exists in every country. Preventing half the people on this earth from reaching its full potential is shortsighted. Society in general is hurt when women and girls are deprived of equality (Negash). For the women of Bangladesh, there are still some huge hurdles to overcome concerning the improvement of education for girls, health and reproductive care for women, and basic human rights. Optimistically, the changes that have already been witnessed will continue to spread so the next generations will be met with a promising future.
Thursday, April 9, 2020
Hormones Hormones are organic substances that are secreted by plants and animals and that function in the regulation of physiological activities and in maintaining homeostasis. They carry out their functions by evoking responses from specific organs or tissues that are adapted to react to minute quantities of them. The classical view of hormones is that they are transmitted to their targets in the bloodstream after discharge from the glands that secrete them. This mode of discharge (directly into the bloodstream) is called endocrine secretion. The meaning of the term hormone has been extended beyond the original definition of a blood-borne secretion, however, to include similar regulatory substances that are distributed by diffusion across cell membranes instead of by a blood system. . Among animals, the hormones of the vertebrates--particularly those of humans and other mammals--are the best known. Most vertebrate hormones originate in specialized tissues, called endocrine tissues, and are carried to their targets through the bloodstream. Endocrine glands. A major endocrine gland in vertebrates is the pituitary, which consists of two distinct sections: the anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) and the posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis). The anterior pituitary is sometimes called the "master gland," because it secretes several hormones that affect the other endocrine glands. For example, the anterior pituitary hormones thyrotropin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) regulate endocrine activity in the thyroid and the outer region (cortex) of the adrenal glands, respectively. The anterior pituitary also secretes hormones that affect the sex glands. One of these is follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which stimulates egg production in the ovaries and sperm production in the testes. Another is luteinizing hormone (LH). In females, LH works in conjunction with FSH to regulate the female reproductive cycle and the secretion of female sex hormones. In males, LH controls the production of the male sex hormones. Other hormones produced in the anterior pituitary include growth hormone, which is responsible for normal body growth, and prolactin, which promotes milk production in female mammals. Its designation as the master gland notwithstanding, the anterior pituitary itself is regulated by substances called releasing hormones that are secreted by the hypothalamus, the part of the brain located directly above the pituitary. These hypothalamic hormones stimulate--or, in some cases, inhibit--the secretions of the anterior pituitary. The posterior pituitary stores and releases two hormones: oxytocin, which causes the uterus to contract during birth, and vasopressin, which acts on the kidneys to restrict the output of urine. These two hormones are actually produced by the hypothalamus, which is linked directly to the posterior pituitary. Other endocrine glands in vertebrates include the thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, and gonads (sex glands). The thyroid produces hormones that control metabolic rate and oxygen consumption. Hormones from the parathyroids are concerned with calcium concentration in the blood, and the pancreas releases insulin and glucagon, hormones that, respectively, lower and raise the blood-sugar level. Hormones from the adrenal cortex regulate glucose and sodium metabolism. Those secreted by the central portion (medulla) of the adrenals affect the heart and the circulatory and respiratory systems; these hormones are important in helping an individual cope with stress. The heart itself releases a hormone-- atrial natriuretic peptide--that helps regulate blood pressure, blood volume, and the salt and water balance within the blood. (see also Index: thyroid hormone, parathormone) The female sex hormones--the estrogens and progesterone--are produced by the ovaries. Together with FSH and LH, these hormones control the cyclical changes in the female reproductive system--the menstrual cycle in human females and the estrous cycle in other female mammals. The estrogens also are responsible for female sexual characteristics. Progesterone is concerned with the maintenance of pregnancy. Male sex hormones--known as androgens--include testosterone, which is secreted by the testes. Testosterone is responsible for the maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Hormone chemistry. Structurally, vertebrate hormones fall into two main classes. Those of the adrenal cortex and the sex organs are steroids, a major class of lipid compounds. Virtually all other known vertebrate hormones consist of amino acids. Most nonsteroidal hormones are composed of chains of amino acids--either short chains (polypeptides) or long chains (proteins). The hormones of the adrenal medulla, however, are composed of amino acid derivatives called amines, those of the thyroid of a single amino acid combined with atoms of iodine. It is believed that hormones achieve their effects on target tissues and organs through either of two mechanisms. The steroid hormones and the hormones of the thyroid can, as a result of their chemical structures, pass through cell membranes. These hormones apparently enter a target cell and combine with an intracellular receptor protein. The hormone-receptor complex then enters the cell's nucleus, where it apparently
Monday, March 9, 2020
The Disadvantages of Socialized Medicine essays The topic of this paper is how socialized healthcare has disadvantages. Socialized healthcare is in the news today and is proposed by some leaders in both parties of Congress as the answer to insurance and health crises that are becoming apparent in the democratic system in the United States. Unemployment and inflation have made it impossible for many to afford private insurance and it is increasingly becoming the norm for businesses from large corporations to small businesses to not offer their employees health insurance. Today a bill to fund health insurance for underprivileged children is being debated in both houses and the President of the United States has threatened to veto it if it passes. Many people are for some sort of socialized healthcare today, but though the trend appears to be going that direction, there are factors that might be detrimental which must be considered before socialized healthcare becomes the norm. One must conclude that should socialized healthcare beco me part of the governmental system, there would be a few disadvantages that might outweigh its benefits. Great Britain is one nation which has had a National Health Service (NHS) since 1948. This initial experiment was more costly that predicted, the system was overloaded so that one in eight patients waited for over a year for treatment (Carvel, 2007, 2), the drugs administered were limited or unavailable for those who needed them, and the facilities were not up to par (Kelland, 2006, 1). Problems continue to plague the British health system, with government officials skimming funds and research lagging. One of the United States nearest neighbors, Canada, has enjoyed the Canada Health Act since 1984, when it established a publicly-financed, single-payer system and outlawed private health insurance. Although most Canadians approve of their public health system, there are problems such as long waits for specialized surgeries (Duff-Brown 1). Another...
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Race and Genetics - Essay Example Since then it has been a subject of debate whether these differences have a genetic basis. 'The high habitability of intelligence and the difficulties of formulating credible environmentalist explanations' have been pointed to explain the difference. Jensen, A. Robert. Intelligence, Race and Genetics. (1999). West View. The arguments by Jensen that intelligence is largely due to hereditary, including racial heritage raised a lot of discussion. Some of the explanations given by the environmentalists include, bias in the tests, the adverse social and economic living conditions of the blacks, discrimination and prejudice and the historical legacy of the slavery, which has demoralized blacks. (Flynn, 1980) Flynn, J.R., Race, IQ and Jensen. (1980). Routledge & Kegan, P. Sarich (2004) made cogent arguments that white race and racial differences are real. He said that the race as a concept is older than the Colonial Europe. Differences in intelligence correlate to the concept of race. Sarich, V. The Reality of Human Differences. (2004). West View Press. Rushton has divided the population in three groups. Africans and Negroes in one group are referred as blacks, Europeans as whites and East Asians and Mongolians in one group as Orientals. He believes that the race differences start in the womb. The blacks are born earlier and grow quicker. They also achieve a faster sexual maturity, family stability and population growth.Rushton, J. Phillip. Race, Evolution and Behavior. A Life History Prospective. (1997).Transaction Publishers. Rushton describes studies that show a consistent pattern of human racial...Since then it has been a subject of debate whether these differences have a genetic basis. 'The high habitability of intelligence and the difficulties of formulating credible environmentalist explanations' have been pointed to explain the difference. Some of the explanations given by the environmentalists include, bias in the tests, the adverse social and economic living conditions of the blacks, discrimination and prejudice and the historical legacy of the slavery, which has demoralized blacks. (Flynn, 1980) Sarich (2004) made cogent arguments that white race and racial differences are real. He said that the race as a concept is older than the Colonial Europe. Differences in intelligence correlate to the concept of race. Rushton has divided the population in three groups. Africans and Negroes in one group are referred as blacks, Europeans as whites and East Asians and Mongolians in one group as Orientals. He believes that the race differences start in the womb. The blacks are born earlier and grow quicker. They also achieve a faster sexual maturity, family stability and population growth. The Orientals on the other hand have the largest brains and IQ. The difference in the race is both due to genes and environment.